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Newsletter 57

August 2001

  1. Inter-Congress of IUAES 2002, Tokyo
  2. Minutes of the Meeting of the IUAES Executive Committee, 18 July 2001, Göttingen, Germany
    by Peter J.M. Nas
  3. Minutes of the Meeting of the IUAES Permanent Council, 19 July 2001, Göttingen, Germany
    by Peter J.M. Nas
  4. Workshop Review: ‘The Indonesian Town Revisited’, Organised under the Auspices of the Commission on Urban Anthropology, 6-8 December 2000, Institute of Cultural and Social Studies, Leiden University
    by Robert Cowherd
  5. Report on the workshop ‘The Indonesian Town Revisited’, organised by the Commission on Urban Anthropology at Leiden University, 6-8 December, 2000
    by Harald Leisch
  6. Report on participation in the XXV General Assembly of the International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (CIPSH), Buenos Aires, 25 September – 2 October, 2000
    by Antonio Marazzi
  7. Report on the Commission on Medical Anthropology and Epidemiology, 1998-2000
    by Anita Sujoldzin and Pavao Rudan
  8. Report on the Commission on Documentation, 2000
    by H. Russell Bernard

1. Inter-Congress of IUAES 2002, Tokyo

The next IUAES Inter-Congress will be held in Tokyo during six days, from September 22 to 27, 2002. The Anthropological Society of Nippon and the Japanese Society of Ethnology will host the meeting. The President of the organising committee is Prof. Keiichi Omoto. The theme is ‘The Human Body in Anthropological Perspective’, but there will be ample room for the IUAES Commissions to hold panels on their own themes. A folder about the Inter-Congress has been distributed and a call for proposals for panels and for papers has gone out. For information and inscription see:

www.the-convention.co.jp/inter2002/ or fax 81-3-3423-4108.

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2. Minutes of the Meeting of the IUAES Executive Committee, 18 July 2001, Göttingen, Germany

by Peter J.M. Nas

Participants: Prof. Eric Sunderland (President), Dr. Peter J.M. Nas (Secretary General), Prof. Tomoko Hamada (Treasurer), Dr. Deepak Kumar Behera, Prof. Keiichi Omoto, Prof. Mike Aranoff, Prof. Brunetto Chiarelli. Apologies: Prof. Luis Vargas.

  1. The President, Prof. Sunderland, welcomed all members of the Executive Committee present. The minutes of the past meeting in Beijing published in the IUAES Newsletter were accepted.

    An E-mail was received from Shen Lin in China that Yang Houdi, former President of the China Urban Anthropology Association passed away. The Secretary General will send an e-mail to express condolences on behalf of the Executive and express the hope that his passing away will not influence on relations and that the Chinese members of the IUAES will continue to consider hosting the IUAES Congress in 2008.

    A report on the Göttingen Inter-congress by Prof. Bernd Hermann was presented earlier. Thanks were expressed for the work of the organisers.
  2. The meeting of the Permanent Council was rescheduled to Thursday 19 July 2001 before the Inter-congress dinner.
  3. There will be an evaluation of a number of commissions in Göttingen. The rest of the commissions will be evaluated in Tokyo and Florence.
  4. The Secretary General will write a letter to all commission chairpersons about the evaluation and will also request proposals for panels in Tokyo and Florence.
  5. Prof. Omoto and Prof. Kanazawa presented information on the Tokyo Inter-congress. A Flyer was distributed. The organisation is well underway. The recession in Japan leads to some trouble in the search for funding. Present-day deflation in Japan may reduce the cost of board and lodging somewhat.
  6. The Treasurer, Prof. Tomoko Hamada, presented the finance of the IUAES, especially figures for 2000 and until July 2001. Ways of payment were discussed and easier ways will be explored, such as cash payment. The financial state of affairs is now more positive than in the past, although still very limited funds are available.
  7. The Florence Congress in 2003 was discussed. More than 8000 announcements have been sent out. The number of replies is still limited, but time is available. Prof. Hamada will distribute information at the triple A in the USA. Prof. Omoto will distribute information during the Tokyo Inter-congress. The Secretary General will ask the Commissions to send in proposals for panels.
  8. Dr. Deepak Kumar Behera made a proposal to raise the financial position of the IUAES. A small group consisting of Aranoff, Behera, Hamada and Nas, will discuss the proposal in more depth.
  9. A proposal by Prof. Omoto was discussed to change the By Law in the Handbook (page 24). It will be presented in the Permanent Council.
  10. The Secretary General presented a report on current projects of the IUAES funded by ICSU, ISSC and CIPSH.
  11. The meeting was closed and the members were wished a pleasant and fruitful Inter-congress.

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3. Minutes of the Meeting of the IUAES Permanent Council, 19 July 2001, Göttingen, Germany

by Peter J.M. Nas

Present were delegations from 15 countries: Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, China, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Ukraine, Russia, U.K and USA.

  1. The President, Prof. Sunderland, welcomed the delegates present. He memorised that three persons that were influential in the IUAES has passed away, Yang Houdi, Peter Gutkind and Lawrence Kräder.
  2. Three new commissions were presented and ratified by the Permanent Council: the Commission on Bioethics, the Commission on Children and Childhood and the Commission on the Anthropology of Mathematics. The respective chairpersons Charles Susanne, Deepak Kumar Behera and Paul Dixon were congratulated and hope was expressed that these commissions will play a prominent role in future congresses and will prove to be active in general.
  3. The President and Secretary General spoke with representatives of five commissions in the framework of the planned evaluation, namely Nomadic Peoples (de Bruin), Urban Anthropology (Colombijn), Urgent Anthropology (Wiesbauer), Visual Anthropology (Husmann) and Women (Delacourt). They all proved to be hard working and were evaluated positively.
  4. A proposal for a new commission on Migration will be discussed in the Executive Committee in Tokyo.
  5. The President asked the representatives to prepare proposals for congresses in the years 2004 - 2008. They have to be informally explored during the coming year and can be discussed during the Tokyo meeting. In Florence final decisions will be made.
  6. Prof. Omoto from Japan prepared an amendment of the IUAES statues. The proposal was discussed and accepted. In the IUAES By Law Number 1 (page 24), under

    Financial Dues, after line 5, the following sentence was inserted:
    ‘National Councils, Academies or equivalents: an amount equal to US $ 0.50 cent per professional member, as determined by the Council of Academy itself, with a minimum of US$ 50.’

    The section on Finances of the Statutes (page 27) will be changed accordingly and so will be the membership application forms.
  7. The organisers of the coming congresses in Tokyo and Florence, professors Omoto and Chiarelli, presented ample information on both congresses. Flyers were distributed.
  8. The President thanked all the delegates for their contributions and closed the session.

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4. Workshop Review: ‘The Indonesian Town Revisited’, Organised under the Auspices of the Commission on Urban Anthropology, 6-8 December 2000, Institute of Cultural and Social Studies, Leiden University

by Robert Cowherd

In 1958, Dr. W.F. Wertheim published a volume of essays under the title ‘The Indonesian Town: Studies in Urban Sociology’ which has since become a classic reference of both sociology and scholarship on Indonesia. Dr. Peter J.M. Nas of Leiden University has devoted himself to updating and expanding this work holding workshops in 1983 and 1993 that yielded two richly endowed volumes: ‘The Indonesian City: Studies in Urban

Development and Planning’ (1986); and ‘Issues in Urban Development: Case Studies from Indonesia’ (1995). The December 2000 workshop was held with the intention of generating a fourth book in this series building on the formidable legacy of the preceding volumes. As such, this most recent body of work permits observation of the changing nature of both Indonesian urbanism and its study. The most obvious and welcome shift signalled by the workshop was for the first time a significant participation by Indonesian scholars who presented over one third of the papers. Still consistent with the previous gatherings in Leiden, this one was dominated by studies of sites on the island of Java with about one half of the papers focusing on the greater Jakarta region.

One identifiable research focus carried forward from the previous workshops was on research methodologies designed to uncover how groups construct the ‘meaning’- the elusive third element in Kevin Lynch’s Image of the City (1960) in which he explicitly set aside the difficult study of ‘meaning’ in order to capture the easier terms of ‘identity’ and ‘structure’. This is in no small part a reflection of the contributions of Dr. Nas’ research over the years on urban symbolism advanced here in a paper co-authored by Reynt Sluis. In the only paper to deal with cities on different islands of Indonesia, they compare the results of cognitive mapping exercises by residents of Bukittinggi, Denpasar, and Jakarta to identify two sources that dominate the image construction of these cities: the traditional structure of the city (marked by market, palace, sacred sites, etc.) and the modern administrative divisions of the city. Complementing this study was Sandra Taal’s look at the monuments of Palembang as constituting a network of symbols working effectively to organise the space and image of the city. Christophe Antweiler’s in-depth visual surveys found that the Makassarese make sense of more than 50 ethnic groups in South Sulawesi by conflating them down to a mere four groups and further in their reference to a ‘Sulsel’ (South Sulawesi) style architecture. How this ‘meaning’ of the city evolves for residents is inevitably a concern of urban conservation as taken up in the papers presented by Pratiwo (in Lasem’s hybrid Java-Chinese architecture), Laretna Adishakti (in Yogyakarta) and Widjaja Martokusumo (in Bandung and Jakarta). Ms. Adishakti was eloquent in focusing less on architecture and more on the role of craft industries, performing arts, education and local communities in the management of the urban built environment asking ‘How can certain elements of local traditions be maintained as change is negotiated into the future?’ Similarly, Mr. Martokusumo asked how the conflicts between urban improvement and the urban social ecology of the kampung can be resolved through sensitive conservation planning.

Participants were reminded that this question of the role of local communities in urban development is not new by Joost Coté’s examination of the colonial-era ethnographer H.F. Tillema who turned his hand to urban reform in Semarang and in the process, served as a conduit for a modern culture of civic governance to pass from the metropole to the colony. Responding to this paper, Dr. Nas reminded participants of Wertheim’s point that the persistence of conditions from the colonial period to the present indicates that, to a certain extent, the issues of the Indonesian town are more a matter of class than of colonialism per se. This bridge between the colonial and post-colonial periods was made even more explicit by Howard Dick’s comparison of the land booms in Surabaya in the 1920s and again in the 1990s in which the issues of ethnicity and the forces unique to colonialism played roles subordinate to those of class and money politics.

This set the stage for a strong thematic focus on the transformations of Jakarta’s urban life through the economic boom years since the 1980s and the subsequent bust since 1997. The interest shown here was the basis for proposing the publication of a separate volume specifically covering the Jakarta material. Indonesian planner Tommy Firman offered the most all-encompassing overview of the contemporary period which saw leap-frog sprawl of manufacturing and upper-class housing replacing agricultural land uses on the periphery, while the central areas saw the displacement of kampung and manufacturing to make way for complexes of offices, condominiums and shopping malls. Prof. Firman’s quantification of the depths of the economic crisis was complemented by the frank assessments and bold proposals by Cor Dijkgraaf which spurred some of the most lively discussions of the workshop. Despite the squandering of scarce urban land on the ‘cannibalistic’ behaviours of private sector competition, he called for harnessing the enormous potential for economic recovery demonstrated by the fact that 17 percent of the GNP before the crisis was based on construction. Many of the key themes of the workshop came together in the research of Harald Leisch into the social values operating in two new town developments of the 1990s to the east of Jakarta. The primary elements of Lippo Karawaci, the golf course, the private school, the shopping mall, the high rise towers, were each found to be mostly unused by residents but crucial nonetheless for their symbolic value and the prestige of middle class status thus conveyed.

Some of the most salient questions of the workshop on the recent history of Jakarta were: How have different segments of the society benefited unevenly from the boom and suffered disproportionately from the crisis? To what degree can lessons be drawn from the crisis? Can government be an effective force for tempering the excesses of the private sector? On this last question several papers offered insights including Woerjantari Soedarsono’s study of significant building code violations found in over 90 percent of the properties in the prestigious Kemang neighbourhood of South Jakarta. A similar analysis in progress was described by Ahmad Rida Soemardi looking at the Urban Design Guidelines at six locations in Jakarta for indications of the entrenched power structures that dominate and determine the outcome of land use decisions mostly beyond the reach of public opinion or even government planning concerns. Achmad D. Tardiyana’s contribution related these power relations to the ‘growth coalitions’ identified elsewhere that work to control investments in the built environment to their own advantage via state and financial institutions. Robert Cowherd’s presentation asserted that the effectiveness of the Jakarta version of a growth coalition was dependent on the propagation of its message through cultural reproduction in the media including the marketing of real estate. His use of the gated enclaves of the new towns as evidence of the success of this agenda was countered by Lizzy van Leeuwen’s reference to the kampung-isation of the Bintaro Jaya new town as more and more holes in the wall between the rich and the poor develop with the passage of time.

Of particular interest were several papers, which ventured to portray the lives of specific segments of society in Jakarta. Tanja Houweling examined the coping mechanisms of several poor households when struck with the multiple crises of job loss and health problems in the family. Atshendartini Habsjah presented a startling portrait of the living conditions of the young women caught in the massive boarding houses of the ‘bonded warehouse zone’. Jérôme Tadié mapped out a spatial territorialisation of criminal and semi-criminal activities according to the power negotiations, conflicts and shifting dynamics between several, mostly ethnically identified, groups operating in and around Pasar Senen. In perhaps the most impassioned presentation of the workshop, Andrea Peresthu pointed out the irony that the process of local community empowerment is assumed to be something the government does from the top down rather than a process of self-empowerment by local communities themselves. He also demonstrated how research methodology can be a positive force for turning this equation around by placing the tools of research, in this case the camera, in the hands of kampung residents. By enabling the expression of a local consciousness of urban space true urban redevelopment can become a viable alternative to wholesale resettlement that has been the historic norm.

The implicit question that hung over the workshop, and made explicit at several points was: Where in post-colonial Indonesia are the equivalents to the progressive forces that struggled against colonialism to bring a better life to the people? The two volumes emerging from the workshop promise to offer much to establish this and other questions as the foundation for scholarship on Indonesian urbanism well into the next century or at least until they are further challenged by the next workshop on ‘The Indonesian Town Revisited’.

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5. Report on the workshop ‘The Indonesian Town Revisited’, organised by the Commission on Urban Anthropology at Leiden University, 6-8 December, 2000

by Harald Leisch

Almost 15 years after the publication of his book ‘The Indonesian City’, Peter Nas invited scholars to give an update on urban development in Indonesia. Together with Sandra Taal, he organised an international workshop under the auspices of the Commission on Urban Anthropology, which intended to prepare a new publication. For that purpose, all papers were refereed and discussed intensively for further improvement and elaboration. Thirty speakers came from Indonesia, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Australia, and the U.S. covering a wide range of scientific disciplines.

Since recent development is always related to history, many speakers concentrated on aspects of colonialism and other historical points: Joost Coté focused on H.F. Tillema and Semarang, Matthew Cohen on multiculturalism in colonial Cirebon, Robert Wessing on Taman Sari and the courts of Java, Pratiwo on the Chinese town Lasem, Howard Dick on a comparison of New Order and colonial Surabaya, Heather Sutherland on credit and debit in Makassar, Achmad D. Tardiyana on the urban development of Jakarta under the New Order and Freek Colombijn on the ecology of Sumatran towns in the nineteenth century.

Societal, ethnic, behavioural, economic, and health aspects in Jakarta were topics of Tanja Houweling’s (health-seeking behaviour), Andrea Peresthu’s (kampung empowerment), Jérôme Tadié’s (hidden territories/crime), and Attashendartini Habsjah’s (women and work) papers.

The major part of the workshop was dominated by papers about land speculation, urban design and management, and new town development in Jakarta and Jabotabek: Bernard Dorléans prepared a paper on land speculation in Jakarta, Cor Dijkgraaf presented a paper on housing and the influence of the crisis, Tommy Firman on land development, Robert Cowherd on western impacts on new towns, Harald Leisch on the structures and functions of private new towns, Tiyok Prasetyoadi on urban management, Ahmad Rida Soemardi on power relations and urban design, and Woerjantari Soedarsono on problems of building regulations.

Although Jakarta seems to attract not only migrants but also researchers, many papers dealt with other towns and regions: Myrna Eindhoven talked about Mentawaian migrants in Padang, Birte Böer about the impact of traditional markets in Bandung, Christoph Antweiler about urban cognition and mobility in Makassar, Peter Nas and Reynt Sluis about urban orientation principles, Gerard Persoon about frontier towns, Sandra Taal about collective memory and urban landscape in Palembang, Widjaja Martokusumo about urban conservation in Indonesia, Laretna Adishakti about urban heritage and conservation in Yogyakarta, and Titien Saraswati about middle-class households in Yogyakarta.

The workshop, opened by Reimar Schefold, was an excellent basis for the exchange of new findings and ideas. Extremely open discussions inspired the speakers and offered alternative new ways of thinking. Thanks to our organisers’ warm welcome and hospitality, the atmosphere resembled that of a family meeting, although many participants had met each other for the first time. Two new volumes on Indonesian cities will result from the workshop, as hopefully will many new and fruitful contacts within the scientific community.

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6. Report on participation in the XXV General Assembly of the International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (CIPSH), Buenos Aires, 25 September – 2 October, 2000

by Antonio Marazzi

The IUAES is institutionally one of the organisational members of the CIPSH, a branch of UNESCO devoted to the promotion of the studies of philosophy and the humanistic sciences. Currently, the CIPSH President is Mr. Julio Labastida, and the Secretary-General Mr. Maurice Aymard.

Every two years, the CIPSH holds a General Assembly, where questions of common interest are discussed, decisions are taken and information exchanged. Each organisation presents an outline of its activities, can ask for funding and submit specific projects to receive financial contributions.

Having been officially reconfirmed as the IUAES representative to the CIPSH, I have participated in the XXV General Assembly, the meetings and the International Congress that took place in Buenos Aires.

By the CIPSH Bureau, I have been nominated a member of the Budget Committee, and I served in that capacity reviewing and discussing the proposals submitted by the various organisations for financial contributions in the biennium 2002-2003. One of the submitted projects was for an anthropological film in five episodes, ‘The Liveable Babel’, to be produced by members of the IUAES Commission on Visual Anthropology in different countries (estimated cost 60,000 US$ per episode), that I had been asked by the IUAES Executive Committee to prepare specifically to be submitted to the CIPSH. The project was very favourably received by the Committee but given the general financial limitations only the ‘seed money’ of 3,000 Euro could be raised. The only other project submitted by the IUAES, concerning Urgent Anthropological Research, received a contribution for a total of 8,000 Euro in the two years. No contribution had been asked by the IUAES for the XV ICAES (although the IUAES Congress will take place during the examined biennium) and could therefore not be considered.

In summary, among the organisation members, the International Musicological Society and the International Committee for the History of Art received less funding than the IUAES, the ten other organisations more. It is my duty to indicate that in her Financial Report for the years 1998-1999, the CIPSH Treasurer, Ms Delbaere-Garant outlined that the IUAES was the only organisation not in order with its dues.

At the end of the General Assembly, the elections of the President and the Vice-Presidents of the CIPSH Bureau took place. The following members have been elected. President: Madeleine Caviness (USA); Vice-Presidents: In-Suk Cha (Korea), Paulin Hountondji (Benin), Fatima Mernissi (Morocco), Zhuo Xinping (China).

The next CIPSH General Assembly will take place in September 2002 in Benin, following a proposal by Mr. Hountondji, while the other candidature, that of China, will be considered for the future.

I have also represented the IUAES at the International Congress that had been organised by the CIPSH under the very anthropological title of ‘Mirada del Otro, Mirada sobre el Otro’, participating in the various sessions. The Congress was an important opportunity to meet colleagues, especially from Latin America, from anthropology and related disciplines.

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7. Report on the Commission on Medical Anthropology and Epidemiology, 1998-2000

by Anita Sujoldzin and Pavao Rudan

During the 1998-2000 period the Commission continued and carried out all its regular organisational and publishing activities which are summarised in the following report:

The Commission continued regularly to publish ‘Collegium Antropologicum’, the official journal of the Commission. During 1998-2000, 2 volumes (22- 23) and volume 24, no.1, 2000 were printed, including a great number of scientific and professional papers relevant to medical anthropology.

The Commission held a meeting attended by a number of its members during the last IUAES Congress in Williamsburg, 1998. At the meeting the strategy of future commission work at the international level was discussed as well as ways which would facilitate future co-operative projects. The Commission also organised six scientific sessions at the Congress:

- Epidemiological Perspectives in Medical Anthropology Studies - Demography, Biology, and Bioethics. Chairs: Pavao Rudan, André Chaventre.

- Growth, Nutrition and Biocultural Changes - New Approaches to their Study. Chairs: Stanley Ulijaszek, Eugčne Kobyliansky.

- Health, Illness, and Health Care in a Changing World. Chairs: Linda Bennett, Peter Kunstadter.

- Medical Practice and its Implications upon Medical Anthropology. Chairs: Norio Fujiki and Natale Losi.

- Medical Anthropology - The Meeting Point of Epidemiology and Genetics. Chairs: Nina Smolej Narancic and Gil Bellis.

- Changing the Perspectives of Certain Diseases - The Medical Anthropological Approach. Chairs: Vesna Godina and Barun Mukhopadhyay.

During the same period the Commission also co-organised together with the Inter-University Centre of Dubrovnik three international workshops generally entitled ‘Anthropology and Health’, which are held annually in Hvar, Croatia. The topics covered by one-week workshops included:

- Islands in Transition – An Anthropological Analysis, 1999 (Scientific organiser: Prof. Guy Heyden, Sweden).

- Disease Profiles in Developed and Developing Countries 2000 (Scientific organiser: Prof. Ralph M. Garruto, USA).

- Anthropology and Molecular Genetics II, 2000 (Scientific organiser: Prof. Alberto Piazza Torino, Italy).

The Commission also participated in the organisation of the Fourth International Congress on Physiological Anthropology, in Zagreb, Croatia, 6-10 September, 1998, which gathered about 200 participants from all over the world. The selected papers presented at the conference were published as a separate edition ‘Current Topics in Physiological Anthropology’ (Eds. M. Sato, H.W. Jurgens, N. Smolej-Narancic and P. Rudan, Zagreb, 2000).

The Commission has also reactivated its organisational activities relating to the foundation of The International Institute for Advanced Studies in Anthropology in Hvar, Croatia, which were stopped in 1992 due to war and political circumstances in the country. Due to recent more favourable social and political developments in Croatia, it has been decided to resubmit the proposal of the foundation of the Institute to the members of the IUAES Executive Committee for consideration at its meeting to be held during the IUAES Inter-Congress in Göttingen, 2001.

The next meeting of all possible members of the Commission is planned during the forthcoming IUAES Inter-Congress in Florence, 2002.

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8. Report on the Commission on Documentation, 2000

by H. Russell Bernard

In response to the IUAES request, I write to give you an overview of the recent activities of the Commission on Documentation and to let you know that I wish to resign my duties as the director of the Commission.

I have served as director of the Commission on Documentation for over 20 years. In recent years, the commission’s main activity has been its symposia at the ICAES. Our symposium in Williamsburg, for example, was well attended, and at our Commission’s meeting, we laid out new goals for the coming decade.

The Commission now needs new leadership. It is my recommendation that Professor Paul Nchoji Nkwi, of the University of Yaounde, and Dr. Isaac Nyamongo of the University of Nairobi, be appointed as co-directors of the commission. Prof. Nkwi and Dr. Nyamongo will apply to the executive body of the IUAES to take over the commission. They have my strongest endorsement.

The original mandate of the Commission on Documentation was to disseminate information about, and to encourage the use of, documentation tools in anthropology. The tools for documenting artefacts and bibliography in all the sciences, including anthropology, are now very well developed and are available everywhere via the Internet. There is, therefore, no longer any need, in my opinion, to discuss this issue.

What remains to be done, of course, is to help colleagues across the world to gain access to these documentation resources. Anthropologists need to know about the Internet-based documentation resources available. The IUAES and its Commission on Documentation can help by providing information to colleagues, via the Internet, about these resources.

Some important databases now available to anthropologists around the world via the Internet are the ‘Human Relations Area Files’, ‘Anthropological Index’, and ‘Anthropological Literature’. About one-fourth of the million-page Hraf Archive is now available over the Internet at reduced cost for universities in developing nations.

‘Anthropological Index’ is one of two library databases devoted to anthropology. It was developed by the Royal Anthropological Institute. ‘Anthropological Index’ is available (for the time being, at least) free to everyone who has access to the Internet.

The other major database devoted to anthropology is ‘Anthropological Literature’, which documents the holdings of the Tozzer Library at Harvard university. ‘Anthropological Literature’ is produced commercially, and is available from the ‘Research Libraries Group’ for a subscriber fee via the Internet.

The next big documentation efforts in anthropology will, I believe, be at the local level. Indigenous peoples of the world can use the Internet to preserve, to vitalise, and, in some cases, revitalise their cultures. Virtual museums, with still and moving images of artefacts, architecture, and events can become a reality in the next generation. This is an area in which the Commission on Documentation can have some influence.

Website of the Commission on Documentation: http://nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu/~ufruss

©IUAES