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Newsletter 59

April 2002

  1. Tokyo Inter-Congress
  2. Tokyo Executive Board Meeting
    By Peter J.M. Nas
  3. XV International Congress on Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (ICAES), Florence, Italy, 5-12 July 2003
  4. IUAES Florence 2003 Election Commission
  5. Proposal for an IUAES Inter-Congress on ‘Racism’s Many Faces: Challenge for All Anthropologists and Ethnologists’ to be held in 2005 at Pardubice, Czech Republic
    By Petr Skalník
  6. IUAES Website on HIV/AIDS
  7. Commission on Visual Anthropology
    By Rolf Husmann
  8. Call for Papers Double Moscow conference, 7-12 June 2002
    By Commission on Urban Anthropology and Commission on Nomadic Peoples
  9. IUAES Membership

1. Tokyo Inter-Congress

The preparations for the IUAES Inter-Congress in Tokyo, 22-27 September 2002, are well under way. The Anthropological Society of Nippon and the Japanese Society of Ethnology will organise this Inter-Congress on ‘The Human Body in Anthropological Perspectives’. A call for papers has been launched and a folder distributed. Information can be acquired at www.the-convention.co.jp/inter2002 or via fax 81-3-3423-4108. The following is the figures as of April 5th. Registered members: 141 (86 from abroad and 55 domestic). Number of abstracts submitted: 207 (this number will eventually reach about 240, and accordingly, the number of registered participants are expected to be about 250). The abstracts are examined and the symposia and individual sessions, etc. reconstructed. The selection of participants whom will be given financial help is under way. From May on, the final program is expected to be completed.

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2. Tokyo Executive Board Meeting

By Peter J.M. Nas

The next IUAES Executive Board Meeting will be held in Tokyo, 22 September 2002. The following agenda is proposed:

  1. Opening (Prof. Eric Sunderland)
  2. Minutes of the Executive Board Meeting held in Göttingen on 19 July 2001 (published in Newsletter 57)
  3. Report on the Tokyo Inter-congress (Prof. Keiichi Omoto)
  4. Future Congresses and Inter-Congresses (Prof. Brunetto Chiarelli Italy; Dr. Petr Skalnik Czech Republic; Prof. de Beer and Prof. Vorster South Africa; Australia; China)
  5. New commissions
  6. Evaluation of the commissions
  7. Proposal for IUAES book series (Lit Verlag) and IUAES journal
  8. Report of the Nomination Commission (Prof. Luis Vargas, Prof. Mike Aranoff, Prof. Paul Nkwi)
  9. Finances (Prof. Tomoko Hamada)
  10. Report on the e-mail directory (Prof. Deepak Kumar Behera)
  11. Membership scheme IUAES (Prof. Tomoko Hamada, Prof. Deepak Kumar Behera)
  12. Membership of the Science Council of Japan (Prof. Keiichi Omoto)
  13. IUAES AIDS web site (Prof. David Pitt)
  14. Preparation of the next Permanent Council Meeting
  15. Closing

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3. XV International Congress on Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (ICAES), Florence, Italy, 5-12 July 2003

Information on the Florence Congress to be held on 5-12 July 2003 can be obtained from www.icaes-florence2003.com. A list of 40 panels proposed by IUAES commissions and members has been accumulated. As this is the IUAES world congress the organisation of the panels has begun at an early stage. The general organiser is Professor B. Chiarelli, XV ICAES, Institute of Anthropology and Ethnology, Via del Proconsolo 12, 50122 Florence, Italy. Fax. +39-055-283358, e-mail: secretariat@icaes-florence2003.com.

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4. IUAES Florence 2003 Election Commission

The Executive Board has installed a commission to prepare the elections for IUAES positions at the 2003 Florence Congress. The members are Prof. Luis Vargas (chairman), Prof. Mike Aronoff, and Prof. Paul Nkwi. Proposals for the functions of President, Vice-President and Member-at-Large can be sent to Prof. Luis Vargas: Lavargas@servidor.unam.mx. Re-electable are the vice-presidents Prof. Michael Little and Prof. Horst Seidler, and the members-at-large Prof. Deepak Kumar Behera, Prof. Keiichi Omoto, Prof. Francisco Mauro Salzano and Dr. Anita Sujoldzic. The secretary general and the treasurer are appointed for an indefinite term. The IUAES Executive Board counts in total six vice-presidents and one vice-president for the ICAES 2006 Congress, as well as six members-at-large.

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5. Proposal for an IUAES Inter-Congress on ‘Racism’s Many Faces: Challenge for All Anthropologists and Ethnologists’ to be held in 2005 at Pardubice, Czech Republic

By Petr Skalník

In this irreversibly globalised world the encounter of previously localised diversity of physical and socio-cultural traits of humanity does not only lead to co-operation and brotherhood. Often it is accompanied by various manifestations of suspicion, hatred, hostility and war which are believed to be caused by the differences of physical features, difference in social organisation, faith or custom. Anthropologists and ethnologists, while trying to understand these differences and explain the tensions among people, have often contributed to the confusion by their scientific classifications and intellectual concepts such as race and ethnicity aimed at grasping the difference. These classifications and concepts helped, wittingly or unwittingly, the perpetuation of difference and thereby differential access to resources by power holders and supremacist ideologues, often to the detriment of human universals. Today the language of race and ethnicity, of positive and negative discrimination, is being superseded by identity and culturalist discourse, the language of autochthony and allochthony, opposing of majority and minority populations.

The proposed IUAES Inter-Congress is intended as an attempt to bring together anthropologists and ethnologists of all specialisations in order to examine our theories and methodologies in dealing with human variability. The aim is to think critically about our disciplines’ contribution to the explanation of our complex world, to the elimination of the multifaceted discrimination based on the political use and abuse of concepts developed by anthropologists and ethnologists in their quest for paradigms and novel approaches in the study of humankind. The Inter-Congress will be an opportunity to manifest the specific public and scholarly responsibility of anthropological and ethnological sciences for the one and only world of ours.

The IUAES has been steadily engaged in critical approaches to the questions of race and ethnicity (viz. IUAES Statement on Race which was submitted to UNESCO: 08-race.htm). Its eleven articles reflect the state of the art of anthropological knowledge about human biological variability. Article 10 states a conclusion shared no doubt by most IUAES members: "There is no necessary concordance between biological characteristics and culturally defined groups. On every continent, there are diverse populations that differ in language, economy, and culture. There is no national, religious, geographic, linguistic, cultural group, or economic class that constitutes a race". The Inter-Congress shall particularly address the complex problem of the social and cultural categorising which continues, whether intended or not, to carry the message of inherent divisions and hierarchies among human groups. The Pardubice Inter-Congress will also be an opportunity for meetings of various IUAES commissions working on problems raised during the plenary sessions.

The Inter-Congress will take place in Pardubice in August 2005. Pardubice, founded in the thirteenth century, is a royal historical city situated on the River Elbe, some 100 kilometres east of Prague. Pardubice castle surrounded by mediaeval walls and the city centre testify to the importance of Pardubice through the centuries. Pardubice is however also a modern industrial, administrative and cultural centre for eastern Bohemia. Its population has reached 100 000. The city is well served by rail and road networks. There is a good infrastructure of hotels and restaurants. The rail travel from Prague to Pardubice takes 1 hour 10 minutes.

The University of Pardubice (www.upce.cz) is one of the dynamic newcomers to the world academic scene. Founded in 1994, it now has four faculties and the total enrolment exceeds 5000. The Faculty of Humanities is one of the fastest developing in the Czech Republic. Its study programmes in the humanities and social sciences have acquired respect at home and abroad. In particular social anthropology, which is taught as a separate discipline since 2001, is a very popular subject among the students. The teaching and research at the Department of social sciences underlines the study of ethnicity understood as the political usage of cultural difference, various classifications of people into groups and distinct categories on the basis of selected and perceived cultural and sometimes physical difference. The study programme of social anthropology reacts to the changing socio-economic conditions and reflects the situation in present-day Europe, where multicultural influences and a non-European ethnic impact are increasingly felt and confronted. The emphasis is laid upon the study of ethnic problems (ethnic minorities, interethnic relations, ethnic conflict, nationalism, migration) with a focus on Romany studies. The members and students at the Department also carry out a complex field study of social and cultural change in the nearby village of Roven which was a subject of a detailed sociological study back in the 1930s.

The idea of holding the next IUAES Inter-Congress in Pardubice has the strong support of university officials, the city government and the Pardubice business community. The preliminary negotiations have secured sufficient capacity of accommodation of all classes to be made available for the participants. The university will provide sufficient space for meetings and its restaurant will be made available for the participants. Excursions will be organised to nearby historical monuments, spas and also the fieldwork site of Roven. A local organisation committee, composed of the representatives of the Department of social sciences, Faculty of humanities and the university administration as well as city and business, will be responsible for the preparatory work and the actual execution of the Pardubice Inter-Congress. The Inter-Congress will be also a welcome opportunity for the Czech anthropological and ethnological community to present results of its work at an international forum. (Petr Skalnik, Pardubice University: petr.skalnik@upce.cz)

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6. IUAES Website on HIV/AIDS

Prof. David Pitt, funded by the International Council for Science (ICSU), is preparing a website on the Anthropology of HIV/AIDS designed for a popular audience entitled ‘AIDS - A Cross Cultural Companion for Students’. The website contains currently an encyclopedia of 408 modules of screen size totaling about 100,000 words. The encyclopedia is available in preliminary proof form on the IUAES website www.fsw.leidenuniv.nl/~nas. For any comments or suggestions please contact dpitt@freesurf.ch. Three examples of the proof modules are the following on Africa, AIDS/ARC and Alcohol.


AFRICA
By far the greatest number of HIV cases are in Sub Saharan Africa. Over 25 million people are affected out of a world total of 36 million. Over 17 million people have died to date. Women number 2 million more cases than men. 12 million children are orphaned having lost at least one parent. Only Uganda has reduced the HIV prevalence rate down to 8%. In West Africa rates are much lower though still 5% in Nigeria. The highest rates of all are in Botswana -36%, whilst South Africa has the greatest number of cases at 4.7 million with a quarter of all pregnant women infected. A number of factors have been suggested for the preponderance of the pandemic in this part of the world above all poverty and war but also the probable origins of the virus on the continent, neglect by governments, shortage of condoms, migrant labour removing men for long periods from their families to mine and towns where they resort to prostitutes, high prices for medicines and therapies, high rates of STDs. But Africa too has seen some valiant efforts to stem the tide often through the strength of family and kinship groups, traditional institutions of co-operation, outstanding efforts by women’s groups and self reliance generally. See P. Setel and L. Milton 1999 - Histories of STDs and HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa - Greenwood, K. Hope 1999 - AIDS and Development in Africa Haworth, D. Webb 1997 - HIV and AIDS in Africa - Pluto/University of Natal Press, C. Baylies and J. Bujra 2001 AIDS: Sexuality and Gender in Africa: The Struggle Continues - UCL Press, Barnett T. 1992- AIDS in Africa Guilford, E. Green - 1994 - AIDS and STDs in Africa - Bridging the Gap between Traditional Healing and Modern Medicine - Westview, M. Essex et al eds 1994 - AIDS in Africa - Raven. More details from www.amazon.com and www.abebooks.com


AIDS/ARC
AIDS stands for the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, but the definition does not apply to all such immune deficiencies but usually those related to HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency virus . Some critics have said that there is a variation in the definitions according to whether there are pressures to have more numbers (e.g. when seeking funds, political support to attack the ‘pandemic’) or fewer numbers (e.g. when countries do not want to frighten away tourists). The present case definition of AIDS proper includes a seropositive antibody blood test for HIV ( not withstanding defects in testing eg false positives), a CD4 cell count of below 200 ( normal level around 1000)and one or more often rare bacterial, fungal or viral disorders including Kaposi’s Sarcoma, some types of Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, various infections of the nervous system leading to progressive dementia, as well as brain infections from fungi and meningitis. The HIV stage of the disease, which is described as a slow virus and which may precede full blown AIDS by years (ARCs - AIDS related complex) has as well as a seropositive test, general symptoms of fever, night sweating, sore throat, cough, persistent diarrhoea, rash, weight loss, Candida (thrush) fungal infections in the mouth, and particularly swollen glands throughout the body. See www.aegis. com


ALCOHOL
The main relevance of alcohol consumption to the HIV/AIDS pandemic is the fact that excess and addictive drinking reduces inhibitions and concentration and is therefore more likely to lead to risky sexual behaviours, although there is some evidence also that heavy consumption leads to a lowering of the immune system as well as diminishing the effects of chemotherapy. High consumption of alcohol is favoured by lenient legal regimes, relatively cheap prices and persuasive advertising campaigns from multinational beverage corporations who have created images which associate drinking with high status activities ,or macho masculine traits. Alcoholism is found throughout the social structure and appears to be one factor which promotes infectivity in the general population rather than say illegal injecting drug addictions which are more likely to be found in excluded or deprived minority groups. One study in St Louis, in the American Mid West showed however that heavy lifetime drinkers regardless of gender, race or age reported more risky sexual behaviours such as promiscuity, infidelity and money for sex than in the population at large. See J. Shillington et 1995 - Is there a relationship between heavy drinking and HIV high risk sexual behaviours among general population subjects? - International Journal of Addiction 30, p. 1453-1478.

Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of information the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences is not liable for any errors or other faults on the site or for any links cited. Where appropriate, professional medical advice should always be sought. Prof. David Pitt can be reached for comments and suggestions at dpitt@freesurf.ch

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7. Commission on Visual Anthropology

By Rolf Husmann

The XI International Ethnographic Film Festival on Food organised by the Istituto Superiore Regionale Etnografico of Sardinia (I.S.R.E.), will be held in Nuoro from 7 to12 of October 2002.

The Festival which is a biennial event always adopts a specific theme: ‘The Shepherd and His Image’ (1982); ‘The World Upside Down or Carnival and Controlled Transgression’ (1984); ‘The Wedding. Marriage Rituals in Traditional Societies’ (1986); ‘Women and Work in Traditional Societies’ (1988); ‘Islands’ (1990); ‘Mountains’ (1992); ‘Men and Rivers’ (1994); ‘Magic and Medicine in Traditional Societies’ (1996); ‘Music and Rituals’ (1998); ‘Children’ (2000).

This year's Festival is entitled ‘Food’ and for films included in competition the following awards are available:

Best Film; Most Innovative Film; Best Film, set and produced in a Mediterranean country; and Best Film by a Sardinian director.

Key words for the Festival are: Food-stuffs, Hunger, Famine, Privation, Abundance, Waste, Nourishment, Gastronomy, Food surpluses, Ritual Meals, Raw, Cooked, Cooking methods, Commerce.

Films that are deemed pertinent to the theme will be inserted in the general filmography which will accompany the Festival's official catalogue. Apart from films in competition the Festival also includes sections out of competition. Complimenting the screenings there will be around the table debates and conferences with the participation of experts and academics from Italy and abroad. The screenings will be accompanied by a brief presentation and, as a general rule, commented on and discussed with their directors. The projections, talks, conferences and discussions will be served by simultaneous translations in Italian, English and French. The closing date for selection in the Festival is 31 May 2002.

To be able to participate it is necessary to send a video copy, on any format to the following address: Istituto Superiore Regionale Etnografico, ‘Food’ - Rassegna Internazionale di Film Etnografici, via Mereu 56, 08100 Nuoro, Italy. Telephone: ++39-784-242900, fax: ++39-784-37484, e-mail: isrenuoro@interbusiness.it website: www.regione.sardegna.it/isre.

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8. Call for Papers Double Moscow conference, 7-12 June 2002

By Commission on Urban Anthropology and Commission on Nomadic Peoples

The IUAES Commission on Urban Anthropology, partly in co-operation with the IUAES Commission on Nomadic Peoples, will organise two conferences at the same venue and the same time, Moscow, Russia, 7-12 June 2002 namely:

Moscow I: Urban Encounters between Nomadic and Sedentary People

Moscow II: The City as Counterpoint of Civilisation

Participants can combine the two conferences. For details regarding the academic contents, see below.

Venue:
Sukhanovo (30 minutes from the centre of Moscow). Sukhanovo is an old, lovely country house, which provides accommodation and meeting rooms. It stands at a lakeside and has a sauna.


Organisation, proposals for papers, and deadlines:
- Convenor Moscow I Conference: Dr. Soheila Shahshahani, B.P. 19585-193, Tehran, Iran, soheila@kanoon.net.

- Convenor Moscow II Conference and local organisation: Professor Swetlana Tcherwonnaja, P.O. 108, Box 2, 121108 Moscow, Russia, czervona@aha.ru.

- Local organisation: Professor Swetlana Tcherwonnaja, P.O. 108, Box 2, 121108 Moscow, Russia, czervona@aha.ru.

- Co-ordinator: Dr. Freek Colombijn, Department of Languages and Cultures of Southeast Asia and Oceania, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands, f.colombijn@let.leidenuniv.nl.

Please, send your abstract directly to the convenor of the conference in which you wish to present a paper. The language at Conference I is English; the languages at Conference II are English, French, and German.


Cost and subsidy
There is no registration fee, but the accommodation at Sukhonovo has, of course, to be paid: Arrival on 7 June and departure on 12 June (5 nights). Single rooms with private bathroom: 40 US dollar per day;

Shared (double) room with bathroom on the corridor: 20 US dollar per day. The price includes three meals per day and use of the sauna at the lakeside. In addition, the local costs for obtaining a visa are 20 US dollar (to be paid to the local organisation).

These amounts can be paid on the spot. However, the local organisation would much appreciate if participants could make an advance payment of 120 US dollar (the minimum costs of 5 nights at 20 $, plus the visa). The address for S.W.I.F.T. remittance is: Saving Bank of the Russian Federation, Moscow City Main Office, SWIFT SABR RU MM 100, Khamovnitcheskoye branch 7812 Bank 0132, Moscow. Account of Branch 30301.840.5.3800.0603810 USD. Beneficiary: Svetlana Mikhailovna Tchervonnaia, Moscow, Kastanayevskaya 23-2-68, account 3884070500093 (stating IUAES Conference).

The Commission on Urban Anthropology has applied for a substantial grant from the International Social Science Council. If this application succeeds, participants will not have to pay for accommodation and may expect a partial reimbursement of their travel costs.


Moscow I: Urban encounters between nomadic and sedentary people
This international conference is held under the auspices of the IUAES Commission on Nomadic Peoples and the IUAES Commission on Urban Anthropology. Convenor Moscow I Conference: Dr. Soheila Shahshahani, B.P. 19585-193, Tehran, Iran, soheila@kanoon.net.

Nomadic populations have a subsistence strategy based on moving in regular paths in search of pasture and other natural resources during a year. Depending upon the weather and custom, the path and time of transhumance is defined. Their activity consists of herding and agriculture, some hunting, fishing and gathering of honey, and wild plants. Nomads also engage in barter or commerce with peasants and urban populations. The second half of the 20th century has witnessed sedentarisation of nomads to a great extent for politico-military reasons, whilst centralised health care and education have also been mentioned as preoccupations for sedentarisation.

Research has continued on pastoral nomads, however marginalised they have become. But the populations who have faced urbanisation have not become the focus of attention. Some have been very successful and some have not. Sometimes nomads are forced to adopt a sedentary lifestyle although their worldview continues to be based on a nomadic life. The relationship between nomads and urbanites is characterised by a mixture of adaptation, co-operation, suspicion, trust and conflict. We find this encounter to be a neglected area of research.

For this symposium we seek papers that address the cultural, political, or economic aspects of the encounter. The relation can be approached from the perspective of nomadic or of sedentary peoples, or the perspectives of both groups may be juxtaposed. The language at the symposium will be English.


Moscow II: The city as counterpoint of civilisation
This international conference is held under the auspices of the Commission on Urban Anthropology. Convenor Moscow II Conference: Professor Swetlana Tcherwonnaja, P.O. 108, Box 2, 121108 Moscow, Russia, czervona@aha.ru.

The conference consists of five sessions:

  1. The archaeology of the city
  2. Urban aesthetics, statues, parks, and architecture
  3. Demography, migration to the city, and labour issues
  4. Religion in the city, and sacral zones
  5. Urban politics, and the city as arena of political life.

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9. IUAES Membership

We invite you to become a member of the IUAES.

Click here for information on membership.


©IUAES/Peter J.M. Nas