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Newsletter 73

December 2010

  1. Developments
    by E. Liza Cerroni-Long
  2. Minutes of the Meeting of the IUAES Executive Committee, Kunming, China (27 July 2009)
    by Peter J. M. Nas
  3. Minutes of the Meetings of the IUAES Permanent Council & General Assembly, Kunming, China (28-30 July 2009)
    by Peter J. M. Nas
  4. IUAES President Opening Speech, IUAES Inter-Congress, Antalya, Turkey (2 October 2010)
    by Peter J. M. Nas
  5. Minutes of the Meeting of the IUAES Executive Committe, Antalya, Turkey (3 October 2010)
    by Junji Koizumi
  6. Minutes of the Meetings of the IUAES Permanent Council & General Assembly, Antalya, Turkey (5 October 2010)
    by Junji Koizumi
  7. IUAES Membership

1. Developments

by E. Liza Cerroni-Long

The IUAES reached the 60th anniversary of its founding in 2008. Official celebrations were to be held within the 16th International Congress (ICAES), planned for the same year. As the ICAES had to be postponed by one year, however, and became the 2009 IUAES World Congress, another anniversary was reached, since the first ICAES was held in 1934. Thus, the IUAES World Congress, successfully held in Kunming, China, in July 2009, took over the mandate established in London seventy-five years earlier for the quinquennial organization of a truly worldwide gathering of anthropologists and ethnologists.

These significant signposts in the history of the IUAES were celebrated through an inspiring exhibition set up by the organizers of the Kunming World Congress, and through the publication of Anthropology Now (Nas & Zhang 2009), a volume collecting "retrospect & prospect" pieces by the chairpersons of all active IUAES Scientific Commissions, as well as a section offering a detailed and comprehensive history of the IUAES, based on the archival documentation gathered and organized by Peter J. M. Nas during his time as IUAES Secretary General.

At the Kunming World Congress various members of the Executive Committee completed their tenure, and several key leadership positions changed hands. These changes, and the loss of a most significant figurehead with the passing of Eric Sunderland in April 2010, led to developments which seem to mark a turning point in the life of the IUAES. These developments include a restructuring and expansion of executive roles, a revision of the Statutes, and a focused attempt at finding new ways to pursue the founding principles of the IUAES mission: disciplinary integration and internationalization.

Eric Sunderland served the IUAES as Secretary-General from 1978 to 1998, and then as President from 1998 to 2003; he was instrumental in stimulating and gently guiding the IUAES toward affirming and applying these principles. Under his leadership, and in spite of the crisis of scientific legitimation brought about by postmodern critiques of anthropology, the IUAES never abandoned its aim "to develop international scientific and professional co-operation ... in the fields of anthropology and ethnology"(Article 3, Statutes). Consequently, we still constitute the only worldwide organization of anthropological/ethnological scholars who are devoted to the scientific study of our species in all of its characteristics, and to the refinement of our studies through the international exchange and comparative assessment of our research results.

By definition, therefore, the IUAES needs to be as inclusive and democratically governed as possible, on the lookout for, and ready to dismantle, any of the barriers to intellectual synergy so easily set up by cultural, national, institutional, financial, and sub-disciplinary constraints. So far, the tools employed to achieve our aims have been purposely streamlined. On the one hand there is the quinquennial sponsorship of the ICAES/World Congress, and of the smaller meetings organized in the intervening period--the Inter-Congresses--which facilitate the growth of professional anthropology in specific settings. On the other hand, there are the Scientific Commissions, each of which concentrates on research activities related to some specific area of anthropological interest. Just because of this loose institutional structure, however, IUAES members may feel less involved in the life of our organization than in other professional groups. That is why first this Newsletter, established by Eric Sunderland, and then an informative Website, established by Peter Nas, have been very helpful outreach tools.

At this juncture, further efforts at enhancing membership-wide communications have resulted in establishing the position of Publications Director, in which I will serve until the next World Congress (Manchester, 2013). My immediate plan is to expand the electronic publication capabilities of the IUAES by upgrading its Website, enhancing the visibility and accessibility of the various Scientific Commissions, and making this Newsletter--which from now on will only be available online--a more inclusive outlet for members input. While the Newsletter will still carry administrative information, such as the minutes of official meetings, reports on congresses, or special statements, I would like to also give some space to position pieces on how the IUAES mission can best be accomplished, written from the perspective of members. Thus, I welcome your suggestions or contributions, which I encourage you to email me directly (liza.cerroni-long@emich.edu). I really look forward to hearing from you!

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2. Minutes of the Meeting of the IUAES Executive Committee, Kunming, China (27 July 2009)

by Peter J. M. Nas

Present: Luis Alberto Vargas (President), Peter Nas (Secretary-General), Tomoko Hamada (Treasurer), Deepak Kumar Behera, Faye Harrison, Jing Jun, Keiichi Omoto, Maxwell Owusu, Soheila Shahshahani, Andrew Spiegel.
Also present: Gregory Acciaioli, Marlies de Groot. John Gledhill,

Agenda
1. Opening and welcome (Vargas, Nas).
2. Discussion of the agenda.
3. Report by John Gledhill on the next Congress in Manchester, 2013.
4. Report by Gregory Acciaioli on an Inter-Congress in Perth, 2011.
5. Report by Deepak Kumar Behera on an Inter-Congress in Bhubaneswar, 2012.
6. Report by Peter Nas on an Inter-Congress in Antalya/Istanbul, 2010.
7. Commissions.
8. Honorary Members.
9. Update on the Kunming Congress (Jing Jun).
10. Finances (Hamada).
11. Nomination of Secretary-General, Vice-Presidents and President (Shahshahani, Omoto).
12. Other items.
13. Closure.

John Gledhill put forward his proposal to hold the next ICAES in Manchester, UK, in 2013. The proposed title is ‘Evolving Humanity, Emerging Worlds’ and is backed by the UK national committee. The proposal was approved by the Executive Committee to be put forward to the Permanent Council.

Gregory Acciaioli put forward his proposal to hold an Inter-Congress in Perth, Australia, in 2011. It would be held at the University of Western Australia as part of their centennial celebrations. It would be a joint venture with the Australian Anthropological Society (AAS) and possibly with the Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ASAA/NZ). The proposed theme (under discussion) is ‘Boom and Bust: Prosperity and Pain in a Risky World’. The proposal was approved by the Executive Committee to be put forward to the Permanent Council.

Deepak Kumar Behera put forward his proposal to hold an Inter-Congress in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India in 2012. The proposed theme (under discussion) is ‘Childhood in Changing Context’. The proposal was approved by the Executive Committee to be put forward to the Permanent Council.

As no representatives of the proposed Inter-Congress to be held in 2010 in Turkey were present, Peter Nas gave a short synopsis of his communication with these representatives. The Inter-Congress would be held in either Antalya or Istanbul in October 2010. The Executive Committee decided that the new Secretary-General would contact the representatives and a decision would be taken at a later date.

Four new commissions had been proposed; a commission on enterprise anthropology put forward by Zhang Jijiao, a commission on Middle-Eastern anthropology put forward by Soheila Shahshahani, a commission on dental anthropology, and a commission on small islands. The first two were accepted by the Executive Committee to be proposed to the Permanent Council whilst the latter two were postponed on the basis of the need for more information. It was also proposed to develop an evaluation system on the commissions, which will re-examine the current workings of all the commissions as well as evaluate new proposals.

It was agreed that Christian Bromberger and Eric Sunderland would be put forward as Honorary Members at the Permanent Council.

Jing Jun gave an update on the Kunming Congress. By 16:00 on July 27 (the first official day), there were 2772 registrations of which 797 were by international scholars. There were 220 panels planned with additional panels being set up at the last minute. 1182 people received financial assistance, with 560 (of which 260 were international) receiving free lodging and 500 students receiving registration wavers. There were 600 student volunteers and the city offered free transport through the bus system as well as free entrance to parks. The anticipated number of registrations at this point was 4000. Out of 200 films submitted, 23 were chosen to be screened, five of which would win an IUAES film award.

Tomoko Hamada announced that the American Anthropological Association, the Japanese anthropological association, and the British association have not yet paid their dues. The current balance is $1,658.77.

(Peter Nas and Faye Harrison were requested to leave the room during the discussion on the nomination of the new President and Secretary-General)

Soheila Shahshahani and Keiichi Omoto as the Nominating Committee put forward the twelve options for new Vice-Presidents and Members-at-Large, which would be put forward at the Permanent Council. If the Manchester proposal were to be approved, John Gledhill would automatically become the seventh Vice-President.

There were two nominations for President, Peter Nas and Faye Harrison. On the basis of a secret vote held amongst the Executive Committee, it was decided that Peter Nas would be nominated for President. An inconclusive vote on the Secretary-General position led to the decision to put forward two nominees at the Permanent Council meeting, Junji Koizumi and Liza Cerroni-Long. It was also proposed that the method for choosing a new President and Secretary-General should be reviewed in the future.

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3. Minutes of the Meetings of the IUAES Permanent Council & General Assembly, Kunming, China (28-30 July 2009)

by Peter J. M. Nas

Minutes of the IUAES Permanent Council meeting, 28 July 2009

Executive Committee members present: Luis Alberto Vargas (President), Peter Nas (Secretary-General), Tomoko Hamada (Treasurer), Deepak Kumar Behera, Faye Harrison, Jing Jun, Keiichi Omoto, Maxwell Owusu, Soheila Shahshahani, Andrew Spiegel.

National delegations present: Australia, Brazil, Cameroon, China, Czech Republic, France, Ghana, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Spain, South Africa, UK, USA [22 countries]

Agenda

1. Opening (Vargas).
2. Roll call.
3. Matters arising.
4. Congress and Inter-Congress proposals.
5. Report by the Nominating Committee.
6. New commissions.
7. Statement on Human Rights.
8. Closure.

Luis Vargas opens the meeting.

John Gledhill gives a presentation on the proposed 2013 ICAES in Manchester with the theme ‘Evolving Humanity, Emerging Worlds’. The proposal is accepted and Prof. Gledhill is hereby welcomed into the Executive Committee as a Vice-President.

Gregory Acciaioli gives a presentation on the proposal for an Inter-Congress in Perth, Australia, in 2011. It is to be a joint venture with the Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ASAA/NZ) and the Australian Anthropological Society (AAS) with the possible title being ‘Boom and Bust; Prosperity and Pain in a Risky World’. The proposal is accepted.

Deepak Kumar Behera gives a presentation on the proposal for an Inter-Congress in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India for 2012. The proposed topic is ‘Childhood in Changing Context’. The proposal is accepted.


New commissions added are the Commission on Enterprise Anthropology with Zhang Jijao as chair and the Commission on Anthropology of the Middle East with Soheila Shahshahani as chair. A committee will be formed to look into the current state of all of the commissions, and to review the proposal for a Commission on Small Islands.

The Statement on Human Rights developed under the guidance of Mugsy Spiegel is approved (see Statements).

Minutes of IUAES General Assembly meeting, 30 July 2009

Agenda
1.Opening (Vargas).
2. Announcement of new Commissions.
3. Naming of the results of the election concerning the Executive Committee.
4. Announcement of the next Congress and Inter-Congresses.
5. Announcement of Statements.
6. Update on Kunming Congress by Jing Jun.
7. Closure.

It was announced that there are two new commissions, the Commission on Enterprise Anthropology and the Commission on the Anthropology of the Middle- East. Paul Nkwi announced a revision of a previously existing Commission on the Anthropology of Africa. There is currently a journal concerning this topic and Paul Nkwi announced his intention to prepare a full proposal for a re-introduction of the Commission on the Anthropology of Africa.

The members leaving the Executive Committtee were named and thanked: Eric Sunderland, Tomoko Hamada, Brunetto Chiarelli, Keiichi Omoto, Michael Little, Horst Seidler, Anita Sujoldzic, Francisco Salzano. The new President and Secretary-General were introduced and congratulated as were the new Vice-Presidents and Members-at-Large. The remaining members of the Executive Committee were also named. The new Honorary Members were named and congratulated.

The Congress planned for 2013 in Manchester was announced, as were the Inter-Congresses in Perth, 2011, and Bhubaneswar, 2012.

It was announced that the Statement on Human Rights was accepted and that a Statement on Race is still pending. Jing Jun read the Kunming Declaration, which was voted on and accepted. It was the first Chinese anthropological statement and was released to the press the following morning.

Jing Jun also gave an update on the Kunming Congress. At this date there were over 3700 scholars and students registered and it was presumed that the total would reach 4500.

Appendix:
Informal Executive Committee meeting, 31 July 2009

Present: Junji Koizumi (Secretary-General), Faye Harrison, Jing Jun, Paul Nchoji Nkwi, Maxwell Owusu, Thomas Anton Reuter, Gustavo Lins Ribeiro, Soheila Shahshahani, Andrew Spiegel, Luis Alberto Vargas (minutes taken by Marlies de Groot.)

The meeting started with a meet and greet, particularly to welcome the new members.

A committee concerning statutes amendments, including Spiegel, Shahshahani, Harrison, Nkwi and Ribeiro put forward initial deadlines, suggesting a first draft to be amended by the comments of the Executive Committee with a final draft being produced for the Permanent Council meeting to be held in Turkey. The two main points under discussion are the national representations and the structural build-up of the committee, especially the differentiation between Vice-Presidents and Members-at-Large. The idea of a parallel body consisting of commission chairs was suggested as a possible replacement for the national delegations.

It was suggested that there should be the introduction of electronic votes, which can be representational or proportional according to regional devision.

It was suggested that in view of the dire financial circumstances of the IUAES, a financial committee be put together to review fundraising strategies. Notions such as a mission and branding were discussed.

Considering the international constitution of the Executive Committee, an electronic bi-annual meeting was discussed through the medium of skype or other internet-based conference calls. Jing Jun proposed looking into the options.

The website is to be amended. The idea was raised to introduce an email address list and an online payment system allowing convenient membership administration.

Concerning the commissions, the Chinese committee will provide a list of inactive commissions at the Kunming Congress to give some indication of current commission activity. A point was raised on the communication between the Executive Committee and the commissions and the need to improve this.

A compilation of archives for the IUAES was suggested, perhaps to be hosted by the National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka, Japan.

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4. IUAES President Opening Speech, IUAES Inter-Congress, Antalya, Turkey (2 October 2010)

by Peter J. M. Nas

From the Crossroads of Civilizations
Understanding Diversity to Connect

Honourable organizers of this IUAES Anthropological Inter-Congress,
Ladies and gentlemen,

As president of the IUAES it is a great pleasure to welcome you all at this meeting of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences and to address you at this Opening Ceremony. First I want to thank Prof. Dr. Erksin Güleç and her team, to whom we are very grateful for all the efforts made to set up this scientific Inter-Congress in this beautiful environment on the south coast of Turkey. I am sure that we will enjoy the papers presented and discussions held, as well as the tourist beaches and the city of Antalya with its old streets and buildings and its lively ambiance.

The title chosen by the organizers under the leadership of Prof. Güleç is: From the Crossroads of Civilizations: Understanding Diversity to Connect. This title is very adequate for the region as Turkey really is a crossroads of civilizations, in between Europe and the Middle and Far East. It is also the region where the first settlements in human history were found. Catal Hüyük is considered the first human village ever and in the Middle East south of Turkey, Jericho, was probably the first city. These places really were crossroads and of course Turkey still is.

The IUAES is also an organization with an international crossroads function and that is why I want to introduce it to you. It was founded in 1948 and it is quite remarkable that such a large and international organization has managed to uphold itself and grow through the years for such an incredible period of time. For not only has the IUAES been susceptible to administrative issues, it has also been prone to the flows of change in the global scene. In other words, the sciences on which it depends - social/cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, linguistic anthropology and archaeology -, have had numerous successes and problems, and also the past political era has been frequently volatile. But the organization managed to proceed with holding the International Congress every five years and even expanding with the introduction of inter-congresses as well as an ever increasing number of specialized scientific commissions.

However, the development of the IUAES even dates back further to 1865, though the organization itself was founded in 1948. Its foremost predecessor was the International Congress of Anthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology, which was founded in La Spezia, Italy in 1865. In 1932, in Basle, Switzerland, the decision was taken to split the congress into two, namely one for the Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences and one for the Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences. This is how the International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (ICAES) was born, being initiated in 1934, when it held its first meeting in London. It held one more congress, in 1938, in Copenhagen. Then it was forced to stop due to World War II, which made it impossible for people to convene. It took ten years before the next congress was held, in 1948 in Brussels. Here, at the General Assembly, a special committee was established. It was to be a permanent body, concerned solely with anthropological interests or, in other words, the IUAES. It was formed at the instance of UNESCO and became a member of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (CISPH) within the nongovernmental organizations as recognized by UNESCO. To this day, the IUAES has retained this membership.

The four-year cycle that had existed resumed with congresses in Vienna (1952), Philadelphia (1956), Paris (1960), and Moscow (1964). The IUAES up to this point remained a separate though cooperative body in relation to the ICAES. It was presided over by different people until Henri Vallois took over both presidencies in 1956. Just four years prior to this, in 1952, the International Social Science Council (ISSC) was founded and the IUAES has been represented in it ever since. By 1964, at the ICAES in Moscow, it was decided that the two organizations be joined de facto. At the following congress, in Tokyo (1968), they were united de jure. At the same congress, it was also decided to change the time interval to five years as opposed to four, scheduling the next congress to be in Chicago in 1973. At the congress in Delhi (1978), it was proposed to organize inter-congresses. These enable countries which do not have the resources to hold large-scale meetings to participate actively. The pioneer of this new venture was Amsterdam in 1981. Since then there have been thirteen inter-congresses and two more are planned for 2011 and 2012, respectively in Australia and India. There have been 16 congresses and the next one is scheduled for 2013 in Manchester, UK.

Statements

Although the IUAES is most renowned for its congresses and most used by its members for networking as well as cooperation for the realization of scientific publications, particularly through the various scientific commissions, it is also representative on the global front. Both small issues, such as drafting a statement to the Ministry of Education in the Netherlands, requesting it to reconsider the closing down of the departments of anthropology at the universities of Groningen and Utrecht (1984), as well as large issues were of importance. For at the same time, the Executive Committee endorsed an appeal against nuclear war which was sponsored by both the USA and USSR delegations at the XI Congress in Vancouver (1983), agreeing to give it wide publicity. Whilst on the theme of the Cold War era, informal pressure was also exerted on the USSR at a certain point, to ensure the exit of a prominent anthropologist, who due to his Jewish background was facing administrative difficulties in his application for emigration. This individual-based interference was also pursued by the Permanent Council of the IUAES in the form of representation, so as to secure proper treatment, when an anthropologist was arrested in Paraguay in 1976. Yet actions do not only involve people, but also cultural heritage, allowing the IUAES to put pressure on UNESCO to ensure that certain projects are fulfilled. An example of such was the preservation of the Angkor Temple Complex in Cambodia (1984). In connection to this, the IUAES also strongly supported UNESCO in their programme on the protection of masterpieces of oral and intangible culture (2002). These efforts occur almost unnoticed yet have a significant effect. Whilst these cases were active involvements, the IUAES also drafted some statements enacting as an ethical code, by which it abides.

As part of the non-governmental division of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the IUAES initiated a resolution on technology in 1980, which was then signed by thirty-eight nongovernmental organizations.

In the light of ‘development thinking’ recommendations on Development and Population Displacement were put forward at the XI Congress in Quebec/Vancouver, 1983. These recommendations were later solidified in a statement on environmental issues with particular reference to enforced migration.

By 1995, Sol Katz had proposed a replacement statement for the UNESCO document on the biological aspects of race. It was endorsed by the Permanent Council. At the moment new formulations are proposed resulting from the 2005 Pardubice Inter-Congress on Race and Racism.

When, in 2004, Anthropology Today published a news article on the CIA’s call for anthropologists, it sparked a controversial debate, one in which the IUAES could not avoid participation. This came in the light of the Iraq war, but is to a certain extent still very much applicable to the continuing crisis in the area. The debate resulted in a position statement of the IUAES on anthropology and spying.

At the last congress, in Kunming (2009), a statement on human rights was endorsed by the Permanent Council and a statement on cultural diversity was formulated by the Chinese hosts.

All these statements ensure a moral basis on which the IUAES can act upon so as not to ensnare itself in ethical dilemmas, an issue continuously prominent amongst anthropologists and ethnologists.

Structure

The backbone of the foundation of the IUAES has always been the statutes, even though these have progressed from a set of guidelines to a sturdy skeleton of intrinsic rules. The main structure upon which it now depends is a triple body, with the Executive Committee as the main regulatory and active body, which makes policy decisions on behalf of, and subject to the authority of, the Permanent Council. The Executive Committee also appoints committees, authorizes a budget, whilst setting membership fees. The Permanent Council consists of national delegations which have the power to vote on proposed items, such as the venue and organizers of the following congress and inter-congresses, the establishment or annulment of scientific commissions as well as any other matters that concern the union. The votes may be carried out with reference to the outcome of discussions held at the General Assembly. The latter can also put forward proposals but has no decision-making authority. This solely lies in the Permanent Council, whose decisions are then carried through by the Executive Committee.

The main components of the Executive Committee and to a certain extent of the entire union are the president, the secretary-general and the treasurer. The president is elected for five years at a congress, this being residual from the era where the president of the union was coincidentally the president of the congress. The secretary-general is appointed for an indefinite term, and acts as the senior administrative officer of the union by maintaining records of the union, as well as the minutes of all bodies. Maintenance of membership records and communication are also carried out by the secretary-general. The treasurer is concerned with both the expenditure and the income. The rest of the Executive Committee, namely the past-president, the vice-presidents (with the president of the following congress acting as an additional vice-president) and the members-at-large, aid in the decision-making process.

Furthermore, alongside the union’s organizing committees, there are scientific commissions which as individual groups focus on particular topics and may arrange sessions at the various congresses, as is the case for some of them here in Antalya. These commissions do not only promulgate themselves at the congresses, but are also actively involved in organizing their own workshops, conferences and publications. Currently there are twenty-nine commissions. Nine of these have been set-up in the past ten years, perhaps indicating the increasingly popular embranchment within the fields of anthropology and ethnology as studies continue to diversify. A decision on a new commission on intangible cultural heritage will be taken in Antalya. Nonetheless, it has to be acknowledged that although in total the number of commissions has grown over the past decennia, a number of commissions have also been terminated. This was usually due to certain commissions becoming obsolete as they got caught in an enduring cycle of a particular group of people with the same ideas and therefore lacking in innovation.

The risk of becoming obsolete exists for every organization, whether it is at the level of the commissions or at a higher level such as the entire union itself. This seemed to be the case to a certain extent in the late 1960s, when according to Belshaw the union seemed to be ‘something of a self-perpetuating network of friends in the official positions’. The union at this stage required a breath of fresh motivation, which it received in the personae of Sol Tax, Cyril S. Belshaw and others. The reform era in the eyes of Belshaw predominantly began at the Permanent Council meeting in Denmark in 1971, where the aim was for ‘democratization, openness, closer liaison with the working scholars in each country, and accountability’. Surprisingly, this rather strongly North American/European team also found extensive support amongst the Russians, in particular from Yulian V. Bromley, surpassing the tense political relations of the Cold War era in a progressive scientific ambience. The proposed reforms were ensured by the constitutional amendments of the statutes, which were ratified at the congress in Delhi in 1978. By the 1980s China’s scientific involvement proliferated, which is highlighted by the exemplary cooperation resulting in an inter-congress in 2000 and, after the postponement of 2008, the great success of the Kunming Congress in 2009.

Communication and cooperation

The twentieth century has frequently been called the age of communication, something which is reflected in the development of the union’s correspondence. What once began as simple circulars, which were exchanged amongst companions, has become a regular newsletter available in digitalized format. In 1960, the first edition of Current Anthropology was released. From that point onwards, until 1981, this was the main vehicle for distributing IUAES news, such as the minutes of all meetings, short synopses of the congresses, and updates about the scientific commissions. The newsletter was introduced at the inter-congress in Amsterdam in 1981, with Eric Sunderland as its first editor. Its contents were not really altered from the earlier publications in Current Anthropology, but the renewed and individual lay-out allowed it a more independent image. Unfortunately, I have to admit that it stopped being released after the Kunming Congress. We have to work on that. Later a website as a central point of contact for the union was developed, with elaborate references to the scientific commissions. It currently is under construction again. In the various scientific commissions, most produce their own website and newsletter. This also accounts for the inter-congresses and congresses, as the Antalya congress website clearly shows.

It is important to acknowledge the various organizations with which the IUAES has relations. These include the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (CISPH), the International Social Science Council (ISSC), the International Council of Science (ICSU), and the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). By paying membership dues, the IUAES can occasionally request a grant from these various institutions. These grants are used for various publications issued by the commissions or to subsidize congresses. It is of great importance that these relations are maintained as the interdisciplinary work carried out through such collaborations is greater than when the union stands alone.

Conclusion

Conflict, tension and war are threatening the world. We live in an age of wonders in invention but blunders in morals. Our science of man must rise to the occasion and ameliorate social conditions through its studies (Skinner and Zamora, 1984).

This quote appeared more than twenty-five years ago as part of a speech by Lalita P. Vidyarthi. To a certain extent, one must sadly observe that the political situation has barely changed during the time passed, creating an even greater need for social scientists. Thankfully, the number of anthropologists grows each year as well, as their expertise becomes recognized and is irrefutably useful in almost all areas of study. An IUAES draft statement on the future of world anthropology once noted:

The scope of anthropology in terms of areas of human interest includes such critical issues of the contemporary world as problems of environmental management, pressure for the progressive reduction of disparities and the restructuring of the world order, the future of the nation-state, ethnic pluralism and the future of national society, and the harmonization of the roles and functions of institutions with the basic and derived biological and psychic drives of man (International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1979).

Even though diversity might have changed thematically over time, it has by no means disparaged its variety. Just looking at the range of scientific commissions, these reflect the broad scope of interest that can be found within the anthropological and ethnological sciences. Keeping this in mind, the provision of communication between individuals becomes essential, so as to create a higher potential for magnifying knowledge. What better arena to do this than the IUAES?

Communication has always been a key part of the whole organization, as it grew from an ‘old boys club’ to a democratically regulated body. The strict maintenance of the statutes has allowed the union to keep control and expand without losing touch with its satellites, the scientific commissions. Also, the continuous monitoring and the system of rotation in its management hierarchy have facilitated renewal of ideas and methods. The consistency of some positions allows continuation. Therefore, the ideal merging of both the new and the old avoids inertia without encouraging rash modifications. This basis, developing forth out of the main goals of providing a platform for communication, publication, and ethical statements, is the answer to why the IUAES has managed to flourish.

The augmentation of congresses by inter-congresses has increased the amount of interaction, which in the current day and age becomes more and more feasible. The expanding international background is particularly obvious when viewing the geographical distribution of the locations of congresses and inter-congresses. The first six were held in the West, and then with Moscow and Tokyo it spread through to the East. The India Congress allowed the involvement of Third World countries. Asia was further integrated by the increased cooperation with the Chinese anthropologists. The last two areas to set a mark were Australia and, finally, Africa, where an inter-congress was hosted in South-Africa. Although Central America was incorporated by the congress held in Mexico, South America has yet to host such an event. It will be interesting to see how this is incorporated in the hopefully not too distant future.

So then, where does that leave the IUAES today? A union that can celebrate its more than sixty years of existence with pride, and can reflect on all the positive changes it has undergone whilst looking forward to the meetings that are still to come. With its sturdy framework of statutes and its creation of both diversity through the congresses and specialization through its scientific commissions it leaves an admirable equilibrium. This strong blueprint is then covered with a moral blanket of openness through internationalism, democracy and above all innovative scientific contributions. This leaves a window of opportunities for the generations to come.

Here in Antalya the next step of communication among anthropologist from the whole world is set. I wish you all a lot of interesting panels, presentations, ideas and discussions. I also hope that you will recognize the importance of the IUAES as a body complementing the many national anthropological unions. And I invite you to take part in the IUAES and in the scientific commissions that form one of the backbones of the international anthropological community. I also invite you to make proposals for the next congresses to be scheduled after the 2013 congress in Manchester. But first, and with great thanks to Prof. Erksin Gulec and her team, I invite you to enjoy the promising and challenging meetings here in Antalya.

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5. Minutes of the Meeting of the IUAES Executive Committee, Antalya, Turkey (3 October 2010)

by Junji Koizumi

Present: Peter Nas (President), Junji Koizumi (Secretary-General), Gustavo Lins Ribeiro, Rajko Mursic, Soheila Shahshahani, Petr Skalnik, Andrew Spiegel.
Also present: Gregory Acciaioli, Brunetto Chiarelli, Erksin Savas Gulec.

Agenda

1. Opening and welcome
Peter Nas, the IUAES President, opened the meeting with a word of welcome. Erksin Savas Gulec, the President of the Conference Committee and the convener of the Inter-Congress 2010 in Antalya, and Gregory Acciaioli, the convener of the Inter-Congress 2011 in Perth, were invited to attend this meeting of the Executive Committee. Brunetto Chiarelli, former Vice-President of IUAES, was also invited.

2. Reminiscences of Eric Sunderland
Peter Nas, Petr Skalnik, Brunetto Chiarelli and Soheila Shahshahani gave reminiscences of the late Professor Eric Sunderland, past President and Secretary-General of the IUAES, who made a great contribution to the IUAES.

3. Report by Erksin Savas Gulec on the Inter-Congress 2010 in Antalya, Turkey
Erksin Savas Gulec made a report on the current Inter-Congress 2010 in Antalya. Some difficulties concerning the anticipated number of participants, payment of registration fees and communications with the participants were discussed. The Executive Committee thanked Gulec and the local organizing committee.

4. Gregory Acciaioli made a progress report on the Inter-Congress 2011, in Perth, Australia.
It is to be held at the University of Western Australia as a joint congress of Australian Anthropological Society (ASA) and the Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa/New Zealand (AAAS/NZ). The Inter-Congress is scheduled from the 5th through the 8th of July, 2011. The theme of the Inter-Congress was changed from ‘Boom and Bust: Prosperity and Pain in a Risky World’ to ‘Knowledge and Value in a Globalising World: Disentangling Dichotomies, Querying Unities’. A detailed progress report included: expected number of attendants, visas and immigration, registration fees and subsidies, registration procedures, facilities for accommodations, plans for call for panels and invited keynote speakers. A tentative budget plan was also presented.

5. Report by John Gledhill on the Congress 2013 in Manchester, UK
John Gledhill sent a written progress report on the Congress 2013 in Manchester, including the plans for financial support and call for panels. It was reported that audited accounts or financial statements of past IUAES Congresses in Florence and Kunming need to be submitted to the Manchester City Council in order to receive financial support.

(Erksin Savas Gulec, Gregory Acciaioli and Brunetto Chiarelli retired from the meeting at this point.)

6. Confirmation of the minutes for 27 July 2009
It was decided that the minutes of the previous meeting, held at the World Congress 2009 in Kunming, should be circulated once again to be confirmed by the members of the Executive Committee.

7. Commissions
A proposal for a Commission on Intangible Cultural Heritage, put forward by Lourdes Arizpe, was discussed and approved by the Executive Committee, to be put forward to the Permanent Council. A proposal for the change of name of the ‘Commission on Food and Food Problems’ to ‘Commission on the Anthropology of Food and Nutrition’ was also accepted. It was reported that the proposal for the Commission on Dental Anthropology had been withdrawn. Research by the Secretary-General on the activities of all the commissions is under way and a report will be presented by the next meeting.

8. Finances
Junji Koizumi made a report on the IUAES finances. The account maintained by the former Treasurer was closed and there were difficulties opening a new account. The current balance is only 16,766 yen (approximately US 200 dollars), although the Japanese Society of Cultural Anthropology (JASCA) and other associations which stopped paying the IUAES dues have agreed to resume payment. IUAES received an invoice for arrears dues from ICSU, and the collection of fees for both 2010 and 2011 is urgently necessary. The relationship between the membership fees of the IUAES and registration fees of congresses was discussed, as well as the possibility for more efficient ways to collect dues. Andrew Spiegel was appointed new Treasurer, and he will be responsible for the collection of individual and organizational membership fees.

9. Newsletter
Junji Koizumi reported with regret a delay in the publication of Newsletters and presented tables of contents for Newsletter No. 73 and No. 74. A decision was made on the distribution of duties of the Secretary-General and Liza Cerroni-Long, Chair of the Commission on Ethnic Relations, will be responsible for editing the IUAES Newsletters.

10. Website
Junji Koizumi made a report on the new IUAES website (http://www.glocol.osaka-u.ac.jp/iuaes/). The necessity for making the website more active and well-connected to the IUAES commissions was discussed, and it was decided that Liza Cerroni-Long will be in charge of editing the IUAES website.

11. Installation of Nominating Committee
It was agreed that the following would be put forward at the Permanent Council as new members of the Nominating Committee for IUAES officials: Petr Skalnik and Andrew Spiegel.

12. Honorary Members
Recommendation of new Honorary Members was discussed and it was agreed that the Nominating Committee will publish in future Newsletters an announcement on the recommendation of candidates for Honorary Membership.

13. Installation of Nominating Committee for Congresses and Inter-Congresses after 2013
A Nominating Committee is necessary for the Congresses and Inter-Congresses between 2013 and 2018, and it was agreed that the following would be put forward to the Permanent Council as new members of this committee: Gustavo Lins Ribeiro and Rajko Mursic.

14. IUAES Statement on ‘Race’ and Racism
A ‘Statement on Race’ had been drafted by Petr Skalnik and circulated ahead of time among the members of the Executive Committee. It was agreed that the document would be put forward to the Permanent Council after revisions by Andrew Spiegel, Gustavo Lins Ribeiro and Petr Skalnik.

15. Installation of Committee for the Revision of Statutes
It was agreed that the following would be put forward to the Permanent Council as members of the committee for statutes revision: Andrew Spiegel, Soheila Shahshahani, Gustavo Lins Ribeiro, Thomas Anton Reuter, and Peter Nas.

16. Membership in UNESCO organizations
Membership in UNESCO related organizations was discussed. It was decided that Peter Nas would communicate with those organizations about reconsideration of IUAES membership with them. It was agreed that Petr Skalnik will be a liaison to ICSU (International Council for Science), ISSC (International Social Science Council) and CIPSH (International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies), although the delegates to specific meetings would be decided individually.

17. Coordination of commissions
It was agreed that Soheila Shahshahani will act as the contact person for the IUAES Scientific Commissions, and to coordinate communication with the Commissions. It was decided that the $100 annual fees for the commissions should be abolished.

18. Other matters
It was decided that the meetings of the Permanent Council and General Assembly in the current Inter-Congress are to be held combined as one meeting.

19. Closure

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6. Minutes of the Meetings of the IUAES Permanent Council & General Assembly, Antalya, Turkey (5 October 2010)

by Junji Koizumi

Executive Committee members present: Peter Nas (President), Junji Koizumi (Secretary-General), Rajko Mursic, Gustavo Lins Ribeiro, Soheila Shahshahani, Petr Skalnik, Andrew Spiegel.

National delegations present: Australia, Austria, Brazil, China, The Czech Republic, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, Namibia, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, South Africa, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, Uzbekistan [23 countries]

Agenda

1. Opening
2. Country roll
2. Reminiscences of Eric Sunderland
3. Report by Erksin Savas Gulec on Inter-Congress 2010 in Antalya
4. New Commission on Intangible Cultural Heritage
5. Appointment of new Treasurer
6. Appointment of editor for IUAES Newsletter and Website
7. Installation of Nominating Committee for IUAES officials 2013
8. Installation of Nominating Committee for Congresses and Inter-Congresses after 2013
9. Installation of Committee for Revision of Statutes
10. Appointment of liaison person for ICSU, ISSC and CIPSH
11. Coordination of Commissions
12. IUAES Statement on ‘Race’ and Racism
13. Next Inter-Congresses in Perth, Australia, and Orissa, India, and Congress in Manchester, UK
14. Closure

Peter Nas, the IUAES President, opened the meeting with a word of welcome.

Peter Nas gave reminiscences of the late Professor Eric Sunderland, past President and Secretary-General of the IUAES, who had a great stabilizing influence on the IUAES for twenty years.

Erksin Savas Gulec, the convener of the Inter-Congress 2010 in Antalya, made a report. According to her report, the inter-congress attracted 105 participants from 33 countries. She offered the opportunity to have discussions among the participants over dinner, and she was thanked by all for her contributions.

The new ‘Commission on Intangible Cultural Heritage’, with Lourdes Arizpe as Chair, was proposed and approved by the Permanent Council.

Difficulties in opening a new IUAES account were reported and the appointment of Andrew Spiegel as new Treasurer was announced and approved.

The delay in the publication of the IUAES Newsletter was reported with regret and it was announced that Liza Cerroni-Long, Chair of the Commission on Ethnic Relations, will be responsible for editing the IUAES Newsletter as well as the IUAES website.

The installation of a Nominating Committee for IUAES officials was put forward and approved by the Permanent Council. The members of this Committee are Petr Skalnik and Andrew Spiegel. The nomination of candidates for offices was not disclosed beforehand to the Permanent Council in the 2009 Congress, but Statutes will be amended for the Inter-Congress 2011 so as to make the announcement possible ahead of time.

The installation of a Nominating Committee for IUAES Congresses and Inter-Congresses between 2013 and 2018 was put forward and approved. The members of this Committee are Gustavo Lins Ribeiro and Rajko Mursic.

The installation of a Committee for the Revision of Statutes was put forward and approved. The members of this Committee are Andrew Spiegel, Gustavo Lins Ribeiro, Soheila Shahshahani, Thomas Anton Reuter and Peter Nas.

The appointment of Petr Skalnik as liaison person for ICSU, ISSC and CIPSH was put forward and approved.

It was announced that Soheila Shahshahani will act as the contact person for the IUAES Scientific Commissions and will coordinate communication with the Commissions.

The IUAES Statement on ‘Race’ and Racism drafted by Petr Skalnik was presented by Andrew Spiegel and examined in detail by all the participants of the meeting. The document was adopted in principle by the Permanent Council, and an amended version will be circulated later by e-mail.

Gregory Acciaioli made a progress report on the Inter-Congress 2011 in Perth, Australia. The Inter-Congress is scheduled to be held at the University of Western Australia as a joint congress of the Australian Anthropological Society (ASA) and the Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa/New Zealand (AAAS/NZ). It is to be held from the 5th through the 8th of July, 2011, and the conference theme is ‘Knowledge and Value in a Globalising World: Disentangling Dichotomies, Querying Unities’. Detailed plans, including those for keynote speeches and a distinguished public lecture, were presented.

The convener of Inter-Congress 2012 was not present and there was no additional information.

Peter Nas made a progress report on the IUAES 2013 in Manchester, which will be organized by John Gledhill. It was reported that audited financial statements of past IUAES Congresses in Florence and Kunming are necessary.

Peter Nas closed the meeting with a word of appreciation for Erksin Savas Gulec who convened and organized Inter-Congress 2010 in Antalya.

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7. IUAES Membership

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